What is C?
C is a structural or procedural oriented programming language which is machine-independent and broadly utilized in different applications.
It is the fundamental programming language that can be utilized to create from the operating system(like Windows) to complex projects like Oracle database, Git, Python interpreter, and some more. C programming language can be known as a god’s programming language as it shapes the base for another programming language. If we know the C language, then without much difficulty, we can easily learn another programming language. C language was created by the greatest computer scientist Dennis Ritchie at the Bell Laboratories. It contains some extra highlights that make it one of the best from other programming languages.
What is C++?
C++ is a specific reason programming language created by Bjarne Stroustrup at Bell Labs around 1980. C++ language is fundamentally the same as C language, and it is so good with C that it can run 99% of C programs without changing any source code. However C++ is an object oriented programming language, so it is more secure and all around organized programming language than C.
Difference between C and C++programming language:
The following are the differences between C and C++:
C is a structural programming language, and it doesn’t support classes and objects, while C++ is an object-oriented programming language that supports the idea of classes and objects.
2. Type of programming language
C supports the structural programming language where the code is checked line by line, while C++ is an object-oriented programming language that supports the idea of classes and objects.
3. The developer of the language
Dennis Ritchie created C language at Bell Laboratories while Bjarne Stroustrup built up the C++ language at Bell Labs around 1980.
C++ is a superset of C programming language. C++ can run 99% of C code yet C language can’t run C++ code.
5. Type of approach
C follows the top-down methodology, while C++ follows the bottom-up approach. The top-down methodology breaks the principle modules into tasks; these tasks are broken into sub-tasks, etc. The bottom down methodology builds up the lower level modules first and afterward the next level modules.
In C, the information can be effectively controlled by the outsiders as it doesn’t support the encapsulation and information hiding up while C++ is an extremely secure language, i.e., no outsiders can control its data as it supports both encapsulation and data hiding. In C language, functions and data are the free elements, and in C++ language, all the functions and data are encapsulated as objects.
7. Function Overloading
Function overloading is an element that permits you to have more than one function with a similar name yet changes in the parameters. C doesn’t support the function overloading, while C++ supports the function overloading.
8. Function Overriding
Function overriding is a component that gives a particular implementation to the function, which is now characterized in the same name. C doesn’t support the function overriding, while C++ supports the function overriding.
9. Reference variables
C doesn’t support the reference variables, while C++ supports the reference variables.
C contains 32 keywords, and C++ bolsters 52 keywords.
11. Namespace feature
A namespace is an element that groups substances like classes, objects, and functions under some particular name. C doesn’t contain the namespace include, while C++ supports the namespace highlight that avoids the name collisions.
12. Exception handling
C doesn’t offer direct help to the exception handling. It needs to utilize functions that help exception handling. C++ offers direct help to exception handling by using a try-catch block.
13. Input/Output functions
In C, scanf and printf functions are utilized for input and output operations, separately, while in C++, cin and cout are utilized for input and output operations.
14. Memory allocation and de-allocation
C supports calloc() and malloc() function for the memory allocation, and free() work for the memory de-allocation. C++ supports a new operator for the memory allocation and delete operator for the memory de-allocation.
Inheritance is a component that permits the child class to reuse the properties of the parent class. C language doesn’t support the inheritance while C++ supports the inheritance.
C program utilizes <stdio.h> header file while C++ program utilizes <iostream.h> header file.
Let’s summarize the above differences in C vs C++ tabular form:
|1.||C follows the procedural style programming.||C++ is multi-paradigm. It supports both procedural and object-oriented.|
|2.||Data is less secured in C.||In C++, you can use modifiers for class members to make it inaccessible for outside users.|
|3.||C follows the top-down approach.||C++ follows the bottom-up approach.|
|4.||C does not support function overloading||C++ supports function overloading|
|5.||In C, you can’t use functions in structure||In C++, you can use functions in structure.|
|6.||C does not support reference variables.||C++ supports reference variables|
|7.||In C, scanf() and printf() are mainly used for input/output||C++ mainly uses stream cin and cout to perform input and output operations|
|8.||Operator overloading is not possible in C.||Operator overloading is possible in C++|
|9.||C programs are divided into procedures and modules||C++ programs are divided into functions and classes.|
|10.||C does not provide the feature of the namespace.||C++ supports the feature of the namespace.|
|11.||Exception handling is not easy in C. It has to perform using other functions.||C++ provides exception handling using Try and Catch block.|
|12.||C does not support the inheritance.||C++ supports inheritance.|
Features of C++
C++ is object oriented programming language. It provides a lot of features that are given below.
- Machine Independent or Portable
- Mid-level programming language
- Structured programming language
- Rich Library
- Memory Management
- Fast Speed
- Object Oriented
- Compiler based
The most important features of C++. C++ is a straightforward language as it gives a structured approach (break the problems into parts), the rich arrangement of library functions, data types and so on.
2) Machine Independent or Portable
In contrast to low-level language, c programs can be executed in numerous machines with little or no change. But, it’s not platform-independent.
3) Mid-level programming language
C++ is additionally used to do low-level programming. It is utilized to develop system applications, for example, kernel, driver and so on. It also supports the component of a high-level language. That is the reason it is known as mid-level language.
4) Structured programming language
C++ is a structured programming language as we can break the program into parts utilizing functions. In this way, it is easy to understand and modify.
5) Rich Library
C++ gives a ton of inbuilt functions that makes the development quick.
6) Memory Management
It supports the feature of dynamic memory allocation. In C++ language, we can free the allotted memory whenever by calling the free() work.
The compilation and execution time of the C++ language is quick.
The most important features of C++. C++ gives the features of pointers. We can straightforwardly interact with the memory by utilizing the pointers. We can utilize pointers for memory, structures, functions, array and so on.
In C++, we can call the function inside the function. It gives code reusability to each function.
C++ language is extensible because it can easily adapt to new highlights.
The most important features of C++. C++ is an object-oriented programming language. OOPs makes development and maintenance are easier whereas in Procedure-oriented programming language it is difficult to manage if code grows as project size grows.
12) Compiler based
C++ is a compiler-based programming language, it implies without compilation no C++ program can be executed. First, we have to compile our program utilizing compiler and afterward, we can execute our program.
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